8-bit AVR Microcontrollers

Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator

By default, the internal RC oscillator provides an 8.0 MHz clock. Though voltage and temperature dependent, this clock can be very accurately calibrated by the user. The device is shipped with the CKDIV8 Fuse programmed.

This clock may be selected as the system clock by programming the CKSEL fuses as shown in the following table. If selected, it will operate with no external components. During reset, hardware loads the pre-programmed calibration value into the OSCCAL register and thereby automatically calibrates the RC oscillator.

By changing the OSCCAL register from SW, it is possible to get a higher calibration accuracy than by using the factory calibration.

When this oscillator is used as the chip clock, the Watchdog oscillator will still be used for the Watchdog Timer and for the reset time-out. For more information on the pre-programmed calibration value, see section Calibration Byte.

Table 1. Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Operating Modes
Frequency Range(1) [MHz] CKSEL[3:0]
7.6 - 8.4 0010(2)
  1. 1.If 8 MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on VCC), the CKDIV8 Fuse can be programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8.
  2. 2.The device is shipped with this option selected.

Warning: The oscillator frequency is not guaranteed to be monotonic within the given range as the oscillator calibration contains discontinuity (see figure 8 MHz RC Oscillator Frequency vs. OSCCAL Value in chapter Typical Characteristics.)

When this oscillator is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT fuses:

Table 2. Start-Up Times for the Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Clock Selection - SUT
Power Conditions Start-Up Time from Power-Down and Power-Save Additional Delay from Reset (VCC = 5.0V) SUT[1:0]
BOD enabled 6 CK 19CK(1) 00
Fast rising power 6 CK 19CK + 4 ms 01
Slow rising power 6 CK 19CK + 65 ms(2) 10
Reserved 11
  1. 1.If the RSTDISBL fuse is programmed, this start-up time will be increased to 
19CK + 4 ms to ensure programming mode can be entered.
  2. 2.The device is shipped with this option selected.