8-bit AVR Microcontrollers

Asynchronous Clock Recovery

The clock recovery logic synchronizes the internal clock to the incoming serial frames. The figure below illustrates the sampling process of the start bit of an incoming frame. The sample rate is 16-times the baud rate for Normal mode and eight times the baud rate for Double Speed mode. The horizontal arrows illustrate the synchronization variation due to the sampling process. Note the larger time variation when using the Double Speed mode (UCSRnA.U2Xn=1) of operation. Samples denoted '0' are samples taken while the RxDn line is idle (i.e., no communication activity).

Figure 1. Start Bit Sampling

When the clock recovery logic detects a high (idle) to low (start) transition on the RxDn line, the start bit detection sequence is initiated. Let sample 1 denote the first zero-sample as shown in the figure. The clock recovery logic then uses samples 8, 9, and 10 for Normal mode, and samples 4, 5, and 6 for Double Speed mode (indicated with sample numbers inside boxes on the figure), to decide if a valid start bit is received. If two or more of these three samples have logical high levels (the majority wins), the start bit is rejected as a noise spike and the Receiver starts looking for the next high to low-transition on RxDn. If however, a valid start bit is detected, the clock recovery logic is synchronized and the data recovery can begin. The synchronization process is repeated for each start bit.