Phase Correct PWM Mode

The Phase Correct PWM mode (WGM0[2:0]=0x1 or WGM0[2:0]=0x5) provides a high resolution, phase correct PWM waveform generation. The Phase Correct PWM mode is based on dual-slope operation: The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM to TOP, and then from TOP to BOTTOM. When WGM0[2:0]=0x1 TOP is defined as 0xFF. When WGM0[2:0]=0x5, TOP is defined as OCR0A. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0x) bit is cleared on compare match between TCNT0 and OCR0x while up-counting and OC0x is set on the compare match while down-counting. In inverting Output Compare mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation has a lower maximum operation frequency than single-slope operation. Due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control applications.

In Phase Correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches TOP. When the counter reaches TOP, it changes the count direction. The TCNT0 value will be equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the Phase Correct PWM mode is shown below. The TCNT0 value is shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent compare matches between OCR0x and TCNT0.

Figure 1. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
Note: The “n” in the register and bit names indicates the device number (n = 0 for Timer/Counter 0), and the “x” indicates Output Compare unit (A/B).

The Timer/Counter Overflow flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. The interrupt flag can be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the BOTTOM value.

In Phase Correct PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC0x pin. Writing the COM0x[1:0] bits to 0x2 will produce a non-inverted PWM. An inverted PWM output can be generated by writing COM0x[1:0]=0x3. Setting the Compare Match Output A Mode bit to '1' (TCCR0A.COM0A0) allows the OC0A pin to toggle on Compare Matches if the TCCR0B.WGM02 bit is set. This option is not available for the OC0B pin. The actual OC0x value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by clearing (or setting) the OC0x register at the compare match between OCR0x and TCNT0 when the counter increments, and setting (or clearing) the OC0x register at compare match between OCR0x and TCNT0 when the counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using Phase Correct PWM can be calculated by:


N represents the prescaler factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).

The extreme values for the OCR0A register represent special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in the Phase Correct PWM mode: If the OCR0A register is written equal to BOTTOM, the output will be continuously low. If OCR0A is written to MAX, the output will be continuously high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic values.

At the very start of period 2 in the timing diagram above, OC0x has a transition from high to low even though there is no compare match. This transition serves to guarantee symmetry around BOTTOM. There are two cases that give a transition without Compare Match: