Internal clock generation is used for the Asynchronous and the Synchronous Master modes of operation. The description in this section refers to the clock generation logic block diagram in the previous section.

The USART Baud Rate Register (UBRRn) and
the down-counter connected to it function as a programmable prescaler or baud rate
generator. The down-counter, running at system clock (f_{osc}), is loaded with the UBRRn value each time the
counter has counted down to zero or when the UBRRnL register is written. A clock is
generated each time the counter reaches zero. This clock is the baud rate generator clock
output (= f_{osc}/(UBRRn+1)). The
transmitter divides the baud rate generator clock output by 2, 8, or 16 depending on the
mode. The baud rate generator output is used directly by the receiver’s clock and data
recovery units. However, the recovery units use a state machine that uses 2, 8, or 16
states depending on the mode set by the state of the UMSEL, U2Xn and DDR_XCK bits.

The table below contains equations for calculating the baud rate (in bits per second) and for calculating the UBRRn value for each mode of operation using an internally generated clock source.

Operating Mode | Equation for Calculating Baud Rate(1) | Equation for Calculating UBRRn Value |
---|---|---|

Asynchronous Normal mode (U2Xn = 0) | ||

Asynchronous Double Speed mode (U2Xn = 1) | ||

Synchronous Master mode |

Note: 1. The baud rate is defined to be the
transfer rate in bits per second (bps)

- BAUD
- Baud rate (in bits per second, bps)
- f
_{OSC} - System oscillator clock frequency
- UBRRn
- Contents of the UBRRnH and UBRRnL registers, (0-4095).
Some examples of UBRRn values for some system clock frequencies are found in Examples of Baud Rate Settings.