8-bit AVR Microcontrollers

Normal Mode

The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGM2[2:0] = 0). In this mode, the counting direction is always up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The counter simply overruns when it passes its maximum 8-bit value (TOP = 0xFF) and then restarts from the bottom (0x00). In normal operation, the Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) will be set in the same timer clock cycle as the TCNT2 becomes zero. The TOV2 Flag, in this case, behaves like a ninth bit, except that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow interrupt that automatically clears the TOV2 Flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software. There are no special cases to consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be written anytime.

The Output Compare unit can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using the Output Compare to generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended since this will occupy too much of the CPU time.